The following is taken from the Description of Work:
Formative interpretations of assessment within day-to-day teaching approaches are defined by Black, P., & Wiliam, D. as ‘Practice in a classroom is formative to the extent that evidence about student achievement is elicited, interpreted, and used by teachers, learners, or their peers, to make decisions about the next steps in instruction that are likely to be better, or better founded, than the decisions they would have taken in the absence of the evidence that was elicited’ in (2009). Developing the theory of formative assessment. Educational Assessment Evaluation and Accountability, 21(1), pp. 5-31.